No Enclave — Exploring Chilean Los Angeles

No Enclave

As of 2015, an estimated 48.4% of Angelenos were “Hispanic of any race.” The majority of Hispanic and Latino Angelenos are of Mexican heritage but the region is also well known for being home to the largest populations of Salvadorans and Guatemalans outside of their home countries. Often overlooked are the region’s smaller Latino populations, the subject of this series of No Enclave posts written on the occasion of National Hispanic Heritage Month.

*****

2000px-flag_of_chile-svg

As of 2010, there were 10,471 Chileans living in the Los Angeles area, making it the third largest community of Chilean-Americans after those of Miami and New York City. That same year, 126,810 Chilean-Americans were counted by the census, with the largest number (24,006) living in California.

Although some Chileans came to California as early as the Gold Rush, most Chilean immigration to the U.S. has occurred since the 1990s, with most Chileans arriving in search of better academic or economic opportunities. In earlier years, most Chilean-Americans were political asylees and refugees, fleeing the bloody dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.

55c00148d8773-image
History marker No. 265 sits on Highway 49 between San Andreas and Mokelumne Hill marking the mining area of Chile Gulch and the infamous location of the Chilean War of Calaveras County (Image: Charity Maness)

More often than they struck it rich, Chilean prospectors found steadier work in Northern California as bakers, bricklayers, and seamen and their presence is still reflected in California place names like Chileno Valley, Chili Bar (a mining camp founded by Chilean miners run out of Garden Valley), and Chili Gulch (aka Chile Gulch). The streets of California towns — especially those in areas settled by Chileans — often have Chilean names, including Calera, Santiago, and Valparaiso.

06_devine_b
Pinochet reviews troops inside the presidential palace in Santiago. (Image: Martin Thomas / Reuters)

The next major impetus for Chilean immigration was the Chilean coup d’état of 1973. On 11 September, democratically elected Socialist president Salvador Allende was overthrown by the Chilean armed forces and national police — aided by the CIA. The US had waged a propaganda campaign against the Chilean Left since the end of World War I, with the goal of turning Chile essentially into an American dependency. Between 1963 and 1973, the CIA covertly funneled tens of millions of dollars into Chilean elections but nevertheless, Bay of Pigs Invasion-critic Salvador Allende was elected president in 1970. The US punished the people’s decision but cutting most aid and hoping to encourage the political defeat, overthrow, or resignation of Allende, the Nixon administration secretly funded anti-government media and labor unions. The coup occurred on September 11th, 1973, and as troops surrounded La Moneda Palace, Allende vowed not to resign, but later that day apparently shot himself with an assault rifle. Pinochet then assumed power and from 1973 till the end of his reign in 1990, up to 3,095 Chileans were murdered, 30,000 tortured, and 80,000 were forcibly interned. Facing this reality, many Chileans fled the country, with most settling in Argentina or the US — today home to the largest populations of Chileans outside of Chile.

Chileans are mostly of European, Native, or Mestizo ancestry although racial and ethnic identification is largely based upon class biases and internalized Colonial mentality so most Chileans, despite their actual ancestry, self-identify as white European-Americans. Attempts to more accurately measure Chileans’ ethnic admixture have yielded varied results. Most suggest that European-Chileans comprise anywhere from 30-60% of the population and that mestizos comprise from 40-60%. However, most agree that Native Chileans comprise about 5% of the population and that post-independence immigrants account for less than 2% of the population, with most with ancestral origins in either CroatiaFrance, Germany, HungaryItaly, Palestine, or the UK.

What’s now Chile was first settled at least 12,000 years ago. The Mapuche, who number some 1,700,000 today, were the predominant population. Along with the Chumash and Tongva of Southern California, they were the only Native Americans known to have taken to the high seas. The Polynesian Rapa Nui, believed to have settled Easter Island between 300 and 1200 CE, may’ve had contact with the Mapuche. The Incas extended their empire into the north met fierce resistance during their incursions in 1460 and 1491 into the south from the Mapuche and subsequently, the Maule River became the border between the two nations.

Spain conquered Chile after an expedition undertaken in 1537. The Chilean War of Independence was fought from 1810–1827. The Republican era (1818–1891)Parliamentary era (1891–1925), and Presidential era (1925–1973) followed. In 1987, Pinochet’s government passed laws allowing for the creation of political parties and the opening of national registers of voters. In 1989, the majority of Chileans voted for Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin and Pinochet stepped down. The years since 1990 have been marked by a transition to democracy.

CHILEAN CUISINE

o-1
Chilenazo Empanadas & Chilean Food (Image: Mr “Wonton” W.)

Chilean cuisine primarily draws from the influences of indigenous ingredients and cooking traditions combined with the subsequently introduced European cuisines — particularly those of Belgium, Croatia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, and Spain. North American influences from Jamaica and Mexico and olives from Palestine were absorbed more recently.

o-2
Milanesa con papas (delicious!), pollo arvejado and pescado frito y camarones (Image: Dino V.)

Given the long coastline, it should come as no surprise that various crustaceans, fish, mollusks, as well as various sea vegetables such as carola, cochayuyo, and sea lettuce. Other indigenous Chilean ingredients include aji verdeavocados, various beanscherimoyamaizemurta (or murtilla), nalca (or pangue), potatoes, quinoaand popular pre-Columbian dishes include humitas and locro. Wormseed (Dysphania ambrosioides) is used to make an herbal infusion, paico, and mate was also popular. Lucumas are a popular indigenous dessert.

o-1
Rincon Chileno Delicatessen (Image: Aryf “Secret Asian Man” H.)

Invading Europeans introduced chickens, cows, pigs, sheep, wheat, coffee, tea, and wine — today Chile is also a large producer of wine. A sweet, undistilled wine, chicha de uva, is made from grapes or applesGeese, turkeys, and various melons (especially watermelons) were introduced from North America. Popular post-colonial dishes include berlinerskuchens, omelets, and pastas.

chilean-sea-bass-feat-jpg-560x0_q80_crop-smart
you lookin’ at me? Chilean Sea Bass at the new grocery store near my house (Image: Mike McCune)

Chilean cuisine is not especially well-known in the US and it’s a safe bet that most people associated “Chilean food” with the “Chilean sea bass,” the fish formerly known as Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) but famously rebranded to make the ugly fish more palatable. Although found in Chile (where it’s known as bacalao de profundidad), it’s not limited to the coastal waters of that country and is found in all of the Earth’s oceans but the Arctic

o
Sunday Market Eagle Rock [Lilia’s Chilean Pebre] (Image: Milly L.)

Locally, there are a handful of Chilean restaurants, including Chilenazo Empanadas & Chilean Food (Canoga Park), Rincon Chileno Delicatessen (Dayton Heights), and Rincon Chileno Delicatessen (Lawndale). Lilia’s Chilean Pebre, a Chilean food stand, is regularly present at the Eagle Rock Farmers’ Market.

CHILEAN MUSIC

Cueca campesina a la chilena (Video: Claudia Soto)

Francisca Valenzuela – “Prenderemos Fuego al Cielo”

 In the 19th and early 20th century, European music was dominant. The 1920s saw the rise of so-called música tipica. The Nueva Canción movement arose in the 1960s and flourished in Chile and elsewhere in South America. The Nueva Ola brought rock music, and hip-hop found an audience in the 1980s. The 1980s and following decades brought some of my favorite pop performers, including Los Prisioneros, Lulu Jam!, and Javiera Mena. In 1999, whilst suffering from a head cold, I drove to Anaheim because JC Fandango claimed Los Prisioneros were going to play — even though they’d disbanded in 1991. Not surprisingly, they were no-shows. Javiera Mena is scheduled to next play in Los Angeles on 3 November. Lulu Jam, as far as I know, have yet to play Los Angeles.

Benny Mardones – “Into the Night”

Los Abandoned – “Electricidad”

Other Chilean-Angelenos of note include actors Cote de Pablo, Daniella MonetJorge Garcia, Pedro Pascal, and Santiago Cabrera; economists Andrés Velasco and Sebastián Edwards; writer Alberto Fuguet; politician Cayetano Apablasa; jockey Fernando Alvarez; doctor José Quiroga; professor Julio M. Fernandez; porn performer Julián Ríos; sportscaster Lisa Guerrero; video artist Marsia Alexander-Clarke; and comedian Pablo Francisco. 

CHILEAN ORGANIZATIONS

01-consul-de-chile
Consulado General de Chile en Los Angeles (Image: Hispanos Press)

The Chilean Trade Bureau does and the offices of the Consulado General de Chile en Los Angeles are both located in Carthay Circle‘s 6100 Wilshire Boulevard building.

*****

Eric Brightwell is an adventurer, writer, rambler, explorer, cartographer, and guerrilla gardener who is always seeking writing, speaking, traveling, and art opportunities — or salaried work. He is not interested in writing advertorials, clickbait, listicles, or other 21st century variations of spam.

Brightwell has written for Angel Walk LAAmoeblogBoom: A Journal of CaliforniadiaCRITICS, Hidden Los Angeles, and KCET Departures. His art has been featured by the American Institute of Architects, the Architecture & Design Museum, the Craft & Folk Art MuseumForm Follows FunctionLos Angeles County Store, the book SidewalkingSkid Row Housing Trust, and 1650 Gallery.

Brightwell has been featured as subject in The Los Angeles TimesHuffington PostLos Angeles MagazineLAistEastsider LABoing BoingLos Angeles, I’m Yours, and on Notebook on Cities and Culture. He has been a guest speaker on KCRWWhich Way, LA? and at Emerson College.

Art prints of Brightwell’s maps are available from 1650 Gallery and on various products from Cal31.

He is currently writing a book about Los Angeles and you can follow him on FacebookInstagram, and Twitter.

Click here to offer financial support and thank you!

One thought on “No Enclave — Exploring Chilean Los Angeles

  1. Another great piece! Just one small comment. You say that following the 1973 coup, most people who fled Chile went to Argentina or the USA. Yes, Argentina was the main destination (though many Chileans had to flee from there in 1976), but the USA wasn’t a significant country of refuge. This was for two main reasons. As the USA helped promote the coup, it had little interest in providing refuge to leftist exiles. Also Chilean refugees were generally wary of going to the USA. Instead it was Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, Canada and Europe that were the main destinations. (Of course many people did freely emigrate from Chile to the USA – primarily for economic reasons.)

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s