John Collier’s Queen Quinevere’s maying (1900)
Tonight at sundown begins Beltane (also spelled Beltain, Bealtaine, Bealltainn, Boaltinn, and Boaldyn), a Gaelic holiday marking the beginning of summer (which in the Gaelic calendar takes place at the midpoint between the spring equinox and summer solstice). Historically it was observed throughout the British Isles.
Beltane is mentioned in some of the earliest surviving medieval Irish literature (eg. Sanas Cormaic and Tochmarc Emire). It was one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals along with Imbolc, Samhain, and Lugnasadh. but was, not surprisingly, attacked by intolerant Christians. By the mid-20th century, Beltane observances had almost died out although there have been efforts to revive it.
Beltane observers (image source: Twilight Language)
On Beltane rituals were undertaken to ensure a good year in the fields. This was done with the burning of bonfires through which farm animals would be driven. According to 17th century historian Geoffrey Keating, animal sacrifices were made to the god, Beil, on the hill of Uisneach in Ireland. Additionally, farmers led processions around their fields whilst carrying grains, farm implements, Beltane well water, and vervain or rowan. Rituals were performed along the way at each of the four cardinal points of the compass.
On Beltane household fires were extinguished and re-lit with flames from the Beltane bonfires. Homes and livestock were decorated with May flowers (gorse, hawthorn, hazel, marsh marigold, primrose, rowan, &c).
Many Gaelic decorated a May Bush (a thorn tree decorated with flowers, ribbons, painted shells, &c). Villages competed with one another for the best May Bush and competitive thievery resulted in their being outlawed in the 19th century.
Beltane dew from select wells was used to maintain youth and beauty. Visitors at the wells walked around them, left offerings of coins and clooties, and collected water at dawn.
The supernatural aos sí or sìth (a sort of fairy spirit) were believed to be especially active (see Walpurgis Night) and rituals were also undertaken to lessen their interference. Examples of these rituals include carrying iron or salt in one’s clothes (worn inside out) and leaving offerings at one’s doorstep.
According to Welsh writer Thomas Pennant, in Scotland people cooked a libation made from eggs, butter, oatmeal, and milk on the Beltane bonfire at least as late as 1769. A cake made from the mixture, bannoch Bealltainn (“Beltane cake”), was cut and a piece marked with charcoal. Blindfolded observers would draw pieces from a bonnet and whoever got the marked piece jumped through the bonfire thrice.
SUGGESTED VIEWING AND LISTENING
Led Zeppelin‘s “Stairway to Heaven”
Paul Giovanni’s “Willow’s Song” from Wicker Man