Obscure and Unrecognized South Asia & Indian Ocean

South Asia


South Asia
is the most populous and densely populated region in the planet’s most populous continent. Not surprisingly, therefore, it’s home to many culturally rich nationalities who still struggle in the post-Colonial world for recognition, equality and self-determination.

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(If interested, there are similar entries about Caucasia, Eastern Europe and North Asia.)

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ASSAM

 

Flag of Assamese Seperatists

The earliest known settlers in Assam are believed to be the Khasi and Synteng people of southeast Asia. The were later marginalized by the arrival of the Tibeto-Burman language speaking Monpas, Sherdukpens, Bhutan, Mishings, Deuris and Bodo-Kachari. The last major wave of immigrants seems to have been the Hindus around 500 BCE, although small numbers of many other groups have arrived since. As such, Assam today is a highly hybridized place that nonetheless is struggling for autonomy.

Assamese Dancers
Assamese dancers (photo by Ramesh Lalwani)

Assamese Music

Ankiya Nat (Onkeeya Naat) is a traditional Vaishnav musical theatre dating back to the 1400s. Borgeet are popular Vaishnav songs dating back from the same era. There’s also a significant folk music tradition that shares many characteristics with Burmese, Chinese and Thai music and is a significant influence on the popular music of artists like Anima Choudhury, Bhupen Hazarika, Javanta Hazarika, Jitul Sonowal, Khagen Mahanta, Luit Konwar Rudra Baruah, Nirmalendu Choudhury, Parvati Prasad Baruva, Utpalendu Choudhury and Zubeen Garg.

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BALOCHISTAN

Flag of Balochistan

The Dravidian-speaking Brahui of Balochistan are thought to be a remnant of the Dravidian migration to India thousands of years earlier. After the area was ruled by several people, the Iranian Baloch people first settled the arid desert of Balochistan about 1,000 years ago after fleeing the Seljuq Turks. Today, Balochi are widely believed to have assimilated varying degrees of Arab, Greek and Turkish ancestry. Today Balochistan is a member of UNPO.

Balochi people 
Music of Balochistan


The music of Balochistan incorporates various influences from Iran and Pakistan and includes Sepad, Shabtagi and Vazbad (various types of hymns), and melancholic Zayirak. Famous performers and composers include Ali Reza Askani, Aref Baloch, Asim Baloch, Bakshi Baloch, Saeed Borhanzahi, Shah Jaan Dawoodi and Abdul Sattar Baloch.

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BANGABHUMI 


Bangabhumi

The Hindu Republic of Bangabhumi declared independence from Bangladesh in 2003. The movement was founded in 1973 in India soon after Bangladeshi independence to support the Hindu refugees from Bangladesh, who were targeted by the Pakistani army in the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities.

Taslima Nasreen
Human rights activist and Hindu Bangladeshi Taslima Nasreen

Music of Hindus in Bangladesh


Many Hindus in Bangladesh have achieved fame either as musicians (Subir Nandi, Tapan Chowdhury, Shuvro Dev, Rathindranath Roy, Aroti Dhar and Shefali Gosh) or composers (Ajit Roy, Subal Das and Subhash Datta). However, with the dwindling, persecuted Hindu minority spread throughout the country, there’s no reason to think all of these artists identify with Bangabhumi.

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BODOLAND


Flag of Bodoland

The early history of Bodos is largely unknown. Cultural assimilation with Assamese was not productive. By the end of 1970s it became clear that Bodos had a little or no influence in the Indian political process. The official Bodoland Movement for an independent state of Bodoland started on 2 March 1987 under the leadership of Upendranath Brahma of the All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU).

Bodo People
Bodo dancers

Music of Bodoland

The Bodos traditionally dance the Bagurumba. Their traditional music is played on local instruments including the Siphung, the Serja, the Tarkha, the Kham and the Khawang.

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GILGIT BALTISTAN 


Flag of Gilgit-Baltistan United Movement

First mentioned by the Chinese in the 700s, according to the GBUM, the region enjoyed a brief period of independence between November 1, 1947, when the suzerainty of the Dogra rulers of the Kashmir princely state ceased to exist, and November 16, 1947, when the local inhabitants liberated their region and opted to join Pakistan.

Kids in Gilgit Baltistan

The territory is part of the larger disputed territory of Kashmir and has been in dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. On 29 August 2009, the Gilgit-Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order 2009 was passed by the Pakistani cabinet and later signed by the President. They are a member of UNPO.

 

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CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO

Flag of Chagossians

The Chagos Archipelago is a group of seven atolls comprising more than 60 individual tropical islands roughly in the centre of the Indian Ocean. The Chagossian people’s ancestry is mostly of African heritage, particularly coming from Madagascar, Mozambique and Mauritius.

Chagossians

There is also a significant proportion of Indian ancestry. The French brought them over as slaves from Mauritius in 1786. The Chagos were home to the Chagossians for more than a century and a half until the United Kingdom and the United States expelled them in the 1960s in order to allow the US to build a military base on Diego Garcia, the largest of the Chagos Islands. Many have fought for their right to return, only to be stymied by the British government.

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CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS

Flag of Chittagong Hill Tracts

The indigenous peoples, collectively known as the Jumma, include the Chakma, Marma, Tripura, Tenchungya, Chak, Pankho, Mru, Murung, Bawm, Lushai, Khyang, Gurkha, Assam, Santal and Khumi. The early history of the Chittagong Hill Tracts is a record of constantly recurring raids on the part of the eastern hill tribes, and of the operations undertaken to repress them. The earliest mention of these raids is to be found in a letter from the Chief of Chittagong to Warren Hastings, the Governor-General, dated April 1777, in which he complains of the violence and aggressions of a mountaineer named Ramu Khan, the leader of a band of Kukis or Lushais.

chittahong

The Chittagong Hill Tracts, combining three hilly districts of Bangladesh, were once known as Korpos Mohol, the name used until 1860. In 1860 it was annexed by the British and was made an administrative district of Bangladesh and a member of UNPO.

 


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DIMASALAND

 

Dimasa women
Dimasa women sorting snails

In the Mahabharata there is mention of the foothill dwellers of the Great Himalayas called Kiratas, which some suspect is a reference to the Kacharis. One of the tribes of the Kacharis is the Dimasa.
Originally established in the Brahmaputra valley, the Dimasa resettled in Sadiya and Assam and established the Dimapur Kingdom in the thirteenth century. In 2009, after years of fighting to regain independence, the Dima Halim Daoga stopped fighting.

Music of the Dimasa

The traditional dance forms of the Dimasa Kacharis are largely instrumental and played on the khram (drum) and muri (a wind blown instrument).

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GARO

Garoland

The Garo are a people who call themselves A·chik Mande (“hill people”). They appeared in Meghalaya, according to tradition, from Tibet, around 400 BCE. Originally they settled in the valleys but other groups persecuted them until the headed for the hills. In 1872, the British army, armed with guns and cannons, subjugated the Garo, who relied on swords and spears in their attempted defense.

Garo musicians
Garo musicians


Music of Garo
There are several traditional musical forms among the Garo, including Nangorere, Serejing, Pandu Dolong. Instruments include Kakwa, Nanggilsi, Guridomik, Kamaljakmora, gongs, Rangkilding, Rangbong, Nogri, Adil, Singga, Sanai, Kal, Bolbijak, Illep (or Illip), Olongna, Tarabeng, Imbanggi, Akok (or Dakok), Bangsi rosi, Tilara or Taragaku, Bangsi mande, Otekra, Wa·pepe or Wa·pek, Dotrong, Sarenda, Chigring, Dimchrang (or Kimjim), Gongmima (or Gonggina), Am·beng Dama, Chisak Dama, Atong Dama, Garaganching Dama, Ruga and Chibok Dama, Dual-Matchi Dama, Nagra and the popular Kram… to name a few.

 

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GONDWANA

 

Gondi dancers
(photo by Ramesh Lalwani)
Gondwana is homeland of the Gondi people. Numerous kingdoms were established there in the past, including in 1398, when Narsingh Rai, is said by Ferishta to have ruled all the hills of Gondwana. Between the 14th and the 18th centuries, three main Gond kingdoms flourished: Garha-Mandla, Deogarh-Nagpur and Chanda-Sirpur. They were conquered by the Maratha and subsequently, the British and now, India. The Gondi’s main voice of change is the Gondwana Ganatantra Party, founded in 1991 in Madhya Pradesh.

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GORKHALAND


Gorkha National Liberation Front

The Nepali-speaking Gurkha claim descent from the Hindu Rajputs of Northern India, who entered modern Nepal from the west. They were long used, after the subjugation of South Asia, by the British to do their military dirty work.

 

Gurkha dancers
Gurkha dancers

 

Since 2007, some of the Nepali-speaking Gurkha (led by  Bimal Gurung) have struggled for independence. The political arm of the movement is Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJMM).

 

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JHARKHAND

Jharkhand

During the Mughal period, Jharkhand was known as Kukara. The principle peoples of Kukara were the Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick-Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Kharia, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal-Paharia, Munda, Oraon, Parhaiya, Santal, Sauria-Paharia, Savar, Bhumij, Kol and Kanwar. In 1765 it was conquered by the British and renamed Jharkhand. Revolts against the colonizer were common until 1900. Finally, in 2000, the disenchanted Jharkhandi were given a modicum of recognition.

Music of Jharkhand

 


I’m sure there’s an indigenous musical tradition in Jharkhand but it seems that Jhumar, a dance/music form from Balochistan, is the most popular.

 

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KASHMIR

Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front

In the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose, replacing the previously popular Buddhism and Hinduism. In 1349, Shah Mir introduced Islam to the region. Muslims ruled until 1751 until they were toppled by the Afghan Durrani Empire, whose reign ended when Ranjit Singh conquered it for the Sikhs. Today, it’s still hotly contested by rival parties including India, China and Pakistan.

 

Kashmiri Children

 

Music of Kashmir

The traditional music of Kashmir reflects its cultural and geographic location at the crossroads of Central, East and South Asia. Chakri is one of the most popular forms. Sufiana Kalam is the local classical form, having arrived from Persia in the 1400s.

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KAMATAPUR

Kamatapur
Kamatapur is the ancient name of the Koch-ruled kingdom, whose lands included parts of Assam, Biher, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. The Kamatapuri have claimed persecution at the hands of India and Kamtapur Peoples Party (KPP) was founded in January 1996 by Atul Roy.

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KARBI-ANGLONG

Karbi/Mikir Flag
The Karbis are a people who speak a Tibeto-Burman language and who were among the first to settle the hills of Assam long ago. Karbi Anglong is currently an autonomous state within Assam although some residents are campaigning for full independence.

Karbi family
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KHALISTAN 


Khālistān

Khālistān is a proposed Punjabi Sikh state, meant to revive the Sikh Empire of the 1700s. The movement to establish the nation peaked in 1970s and 1980s and has since grown much quieter.

 

Punjabi Sikhs

 

Well known Punjabi Sikh performers include Kuldeep Manak, Daler Mehndi, Jaspinder Narula, Shingara Singh and Sukhbir.

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MANIPUR
Manipur
The Meeteis are the primary inhabitants of Manipur’s valleys and the hills are mostly home to Nagas and Kukis (or Zoumis). Written history of Manipur begins with King Pakhangba‘s unification of seven clans. Manipur was conquered by the British in 1891 and they ruled until the partition of British India. Manipur separatist ambitions have been fanned, according to Human Rights Watch, by abuses of Indian Security Forces.


Manipuri

Music of Manipur
Manipuri musical forms include khullong ishei (love songs), the erotic, mystical Lai Haraoba ishei, the religious thabal chongba, the classical nat music performed at various special occasions, the women’s devotional napi pala songs, Gaur Padas (praise songs), devotional Manohar Sai and Khubaishei.
 
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NAGALIM


Flag of Nagaland

In Burmese, “Naka” means “people with pierced ears.” The Naga may have migrated to their current location in Nagaland from a region between the Huan Ho and Yangtze rivers. As early as 150 AD, they were mentioned in the writings of Ptolemy, however, the historical record of the Naga is sparse, picking up again in 1816, with the invasion of Nagaland by the Burmese. Lumped together with Assam following the partition of India, the Naga National Council has long attempted to earn self-determination. They’re members of UNPO. Oh yeah, and they’re mostly Baptists.

 

Naga dress
Naga modeling their famed weaving

Music of Nagaland


The oral tradition of the Naga is passed down through folk songs, dances and folk tales. Subjects are primarily romantic, historical, agricultural or devotional.

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PASHTUNISTAN
Pakhtunistan

Pashtunistan or Pakhtunistan is a proposed nation constituting the Pashtun areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Pashtun homeland was divided in 1893 by the Durand Line dividing British India and Afghanistan. The area was historically known as Pukhtunkhwa or Paktika. The Durrani Empire united the Pashtun areas in 1747, which lasted until conflicts with British Empire and the Sikh resulted in its collapse.

 

Pashtun Party
 


Pashtun music

One of the most popular traditional forms is Attan. There’s also the Khattak Wal Atanrh, Mahsood Wal Atanrh and Waziro Atanrh, among others. Many Pashtun forms combine roots in Hindustani and Persian music. Some well known Pashto singers include Nashenas, Sardar Ali Takkar, Naghma, Rahim Shah, Farhad Darya and Nazia Iqbal.

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RAJUPTANA

 

Rājput Council


Rājputāna
was ruled by the Rajputs for centuries. They were famed for their abilities as warriors and often clashed with Mongols, Arabs and Turkic would-be invaders who worshiped the sun and may be descended from Scythians. The non-violent Rājputāna Liberation Front is the primary force attempting to re-attain independence.

Music ofRājputāna

Most of Rājputāna is situated in the Thar desert and the lyrics of folk songs often focus on fetching water from various sources.

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SIKKIM

 

Flag of Sikkim

Sikkim is situated in the Himalayas and home to the Sikkimese. They believe that they were introduced to Buddhism by Guru Rinpoche in the 8th or 9th century. The Lepcha and Limbu tribes migrated from Tibet. They were joined by the Bhuttias from Nepal around the 1400s and later, Nepalese.

Lepcha men in Sikkim
Lepcha men in Sikkim

The Sikkimese established the Namgyal dynasty in 1642 and over the next century and a half fought off invaders until it was annexed by the British after they allied themselves with them. The Sikkim Democratic Front has been a force seeking Sikkimese since 1994.

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SINDH


Sindh flag

Sindh is home to the Sindhis. Their civilization may’ve been toppled as early as 1700 BCE and their homelands have over the millennia seen the arrival of Muhajirs, Pashtuns and Punjabis. In 1972 the Jeay Sindh Qaumi Mahaz movement was founded by G M Syed with the aim of Sindhi liberation. Syed was placed under house arrest until his death in 1995. The Sindh are currently represented in the UNPO.

 

Sindhi Children

Sindhi Music
There are two main forms of Sinhi music, baits, a vocal form, and waee, an instrumental form.

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TELANGANA 

Telagana

Telangana or Telengana means “land of Telugus.” They may be descended from the Tailang of Burma. In the 1950s and ’60s, discontent among Telugus began to grow and the Telangana movement eventually turned to violence which resulted in the death of 360 students. The Nava Telangana Party, led by T Devender Goud, declared Telangana as a separate province on November 2, 2008.

 

Telugu musicians

 

Music of Telagana
Currently, the Telugu film industry, also known as Tollywood, is the dominant vehicle for Telugu music.

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TAMIL NADU

Tamil Eelam flag

Tamil Eelam is the name of the state the Tamil attempted to establish in the north and east of Sri Lanka. The Sinhalese dominate Sri Lanka and many Tamil have long felt marginalized. From 1983 to 2009 the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam fought an extremely bloody war against the Sri Lankan government.

 

Young Tamil girls

Tamil music
The most famous Tamil musician is Mathangi Arulpragasam, better known as M.I.A. Traditional Tamil Nadu music draws upon classical Carnatic music and poems of Sangam literature. Other musicians, famous among the Tamil diaspora (including those in Tamil Nedu), include Vijayalakshmi Navaneethakrishnan, Pushpavanam Kuppuswamy, K. V. Mahadevan and M. S. Viswanathan. Tamil Cinema has produced several well-known film composers, including A. R. Rahman, Yuvan Shankar Raja, Harris Jayaraj, Karthik Raja and Vidyasagar.

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TEOLA COUNTRY

 

Tai-Khamtis men


Tai people (not to be confused with Thai) most likely originated in China and various groups have migrated around southeast and south Asia. Since 1996, the Arunachal Dragon Force (ADF) has struggled against domination of the Tai-Khamtis by both the Adi and the Indian government that has ruled them since post-British colonial period.

 

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TWIPRA 


Tripura Flag

The Twipra Kingdom was ruled by the Tripuri people for at least 2,000 years. They are believed to have left China before the Sui Dynasty and settled in the area. Since being ruled by India since 1949, the TNV (Tripura National Volunteers), the NLFT (National Liberation Front of Tripura) and the ATTF (All Tripura Tiger Force) have all fought to restore their independence.

 

Young Tripuri Dancers
Young Tripuri Dancers


Music of Twipra

 


 


The Tripuri’s traditional music is played on instruments including drums, rattles, rhythmic sticks, sumui (bamboo flute), chongpreng (akin to a lute), dangdoo (jew’s harp), and other instruments. One of the key figures in Twipra music is Hemanta Jamatia, a retired member of the TNV who later surrendered and dedicated his life to protecting his peoples’ music.

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TULU NADU


Flag of Tulu Nadu

1100 years ago the Kingdom of Tulu Nadu was ruled by the Ballal Kings of Sullia. Although Tulu speakers still make up the majority of the population, there are Konkani, Kannada and Beary-speaking minorities. The culture also reflects the influence of Arabs, Jains and Goud Saraswat Brahmins.

 

Tulavu people

Two of the more widely known Tuluva pop singers are Shweta Shetty and Vidyabhushana. One of the popular traditional forms is the Yakshagana, which is somewhat akin to opera.

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VIDARBHA 

 

Farmer in Vidarbha
parched farmland in Vidarbha


Vidarbha
was an independent kingdom ruled by the Yadva at least as old as the Mahabharata, in which it is mentioned. Today Vidarbha is home to Telugu and Hindi speakers and people from Chhattisgarh.

 

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WAZIRISTAN

Flag of Waziristan
The mountainous nation of Waziristan is in the news a lot nowadays, ever since it was thrust into the media after the invasion of Afghanistan. There are various conflicting accounts of the Wazir peoples’ origins, pointing variously to the Afridis, Aryans, Hephthalites, Kushan and Scythians.

 

Displaces Waziris
Waziris displaced by warfare
 
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ZOZAM

Flag of Zozam


Zozam is the proposed name of a state in what is currently the north Indian state of Mizoram. The main population is the Mizo people. They speak a Tibeto-Burman language although legend says they emerged from under a large covering rock known as Chhinlung. Most suspect that the Mizo arrived from China centuries ago and may be close relatives of the Chin in Burma. Although the Mizo National Front used to actively fight for independence, nowadays they pursue their aims through political action.

 

Mizo Idol
The panel of judges on Mizo Idol

 

Music of Zozam

The Mizo people categorize their traditional music into several types, including Bawh Hla (warrior chants) Hlado (hunting chants), Thiam hla & dawi hla (Invocation & Incantation), Dar Hla (instrumental gong music), Puipun Hla (festival songs) Lengzem Zai (love songs), tribal anthems, village anthems, and other styles.

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Eric Brightwell is an adventurer, writer, rambler, explorer, cartographer, and guerrilla gardener who is always seeking writing, speaking, traveling, and art opportunities — or salaried work. He is not interested in writing advertorials, clickbait, listicles, or other 21st century variations of spam. Brightwell’s written work has appeared in AmoeblogdiaCRITICS, and KCET Departures. His work has been featured by the American Institute of Architects, the Architecture & Design Museum, the Craft & Folk Art MuseumForm Follows FunctionLos Angeles County StoreSkid Row Housing Trust, and 1650 Gallery. Brightwell has been featured in the Los Angeles TimesHuffington PostLos Angeles MagazineLAistEastsider LABoing BoingLos Angeles, I’m Yours, and on Notebook on Cities and Culture. He has been a guest speaker on KCRW‘s Which Way, LA? and at Emerson College. Art prints of his maps are available from 1650 Gallery and on other products from Cal31. He is currently writing a book about Los Angeles and you can follow him on FacebookInstagram, and Twitter.

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